Deutsch: Umweltverträglichkeitserklärung / Español: Declaración de Impacto Ambiental / Português: Declaração de Impacto Ambiental / Français: Déclaration d'Impact sur l'Environnement / Italiano: Dichiarazione di Impatto Ambientale

An Environmental Impact Statement (EIS, DEIS = Draft EIS, FEIS = Final EIS) in the environment context is a comprehensive document that assesses the potential environmental effects of a proposed project or action. It is a critical component of environmental planning and decision-making processes, used primarily to inform government agencies, stakeholders, and the public about the environmental implications of major federal projects or actions. An EIS evaluates both the positive and negative environmental effects and outlines measures to mitigate adverse impacts.

General Description

The EIS process involves several key steps: screening to determine if an EIS is needed, scoping to identify the key issues and impacts to be considered, preparing the draft EIS, public consultation and review, finalizing the EIS, and making a decision. The EIS includes detailed analyses of the proposed action's potential effects on air and water quality, wildlife, vegetation, soil, cultural resources, noise levels, and more, depending on the project's nature and scope.

Areas of Application

Well-Known Examples

  • The Keystone XL Pipeline: An extensive EIS was prepared to evaluate the environmental impacts of constructing and operating the pipeline across multiple U.S. states.
  • Large-scale wind farms: EIS documents are often prepared to assess the impact of wind turbines on wildlife, especially birds and bats, as well as visual and noise impacts.


The primary risk associated with not adequately conducting an EIS is the potential for significant adverse environmental impacts to go unidentified or unmitigated. This can lead to ecosystem damage, loss of biodiversity, and negative effects on community health and well-being. Additionally, legal and financial repercussions can arise from failing to comply with environmental regulations.


Effective mitigation measures outlined in an EIS can include altering the project design, implementing protective measures for wildlife, monitoring environmental quality during and after project implementation, and compensatory actions such as habitat restoration. Public participation is also a crucial element, ensuring that the EIS process is transparent and inclusive.

History and Legal Basics

The requirement for an Environmental Impact Statement was established in the United States by the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969. Since then, the concept has been adopted and adapted by many other countries around the world as part of their environmental protection legislation. These laws require that an EIS be conducted for any major project or action that could significantly affect the environment.


The Environmental Impact Statement is a foundational tool in environmental management, designed to ensure that the potential environmental impacts of proposed projects are thoroughly assessed and addressed before decisions are made. By identifying potential adverse effects and proposing mitigation strategies, the EIS process helps to protect environmental and public health and uphold the principles of sustainable development.


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