Deutsch: Arktis / Español: Ártico / Português: Ártico / Français: Arctique / Italiano: Artico

In the environmental context, the Arctic refers to the northernmost region of the Earth, characterized by its cold climate, ice-covered seas, distinct ecosystems, and unique biodiversity. This region includes the Arctic Ocean, parts of Canada, Greenland, Russia, the United States (Alaska), Iceland, Norway, Sweden, and Finland. The Arctic plays a crucial role in the global climate system and is experiencing rapid environmental changes due to global warming, with significant implications for its ice cover, ecosystems, and Indigenous communities.


The Arctic is known for its extreme conditions, with long, dark winters and short, cool summers. It is home to ice-dependent species such as polar bears, walruses, and seals, as well as rich marine biodiversity in its cold waters. Indigenous peoples have inhabited parts of the Arctic for thousands of years, with cultures deeply connected to the land, sea, and ice. Environmental changes in the Arctic, including melting sea ice, thawing permafrost, and changing ecosystems, are of global concern. These changes affect global weather patterns, sea level rise, and the traditional ways of life of Indigenous communities.

Application Areas

  • Climate Research: The Arctic is a focal point for climate science, with its changes providing early indicators of global climate trends.
  • Conservation Efforts: Protecting Arctic wildlife and ecosystems through conservation programs and protected areas.
  • Indigenous Rights and Cultures: Recognizing and supporting the rights of Indigenous peoples to maintain their traditional ways of life in the face of environmental change.
  • Policy and Governance: International cooperation to manage the Arctic's resources and address environmental challenges, involving Arctic states and Indigenous peoples' organizations.

Well-Known Examples

  • The Arctic Circle: An imaginary line that marks the approximate southern limit of the Arctic region, where, for at least one day a year, there is a complete day of darkness or continuous daylight.
  • The Arctic National Wildlife Refuge (ANWR): A protected area in Alaska known for its natural beauty and wildlife, currently facing pressures from oil and gas development interests.
  • The Svalbard Archipelago: Known for its rugged terrain, glaciers, and polar bears, Svalbard is a key area for Arctic research and tourism.

Treatment and Risks

The Arctic's environmental changes pose risks to its wildlife, ecosystems, and Indigenous communities. Melting sea ice threatens species that depend on ice for hunting and breeding. Thawing permafrost releases greenhouse gases, further exacerbating global warming. Sustainable management and international collaboration are essential to address these challenges, with efforts focusing on mitigating climate change impacts, protecting the Arctic's natural and cultural heritage, and promoting sustainable development.

Similar Terms

  • Antarctic: The Earth's southernmost continent, centered on the South Pole, distinct from the Arctic, which is centered on the North Pole.
  • Permafrost: Ground that remains completely frozen for at least two consecutive years, prevalent in the Arctic region.


The Arctic is a critical region for understanding global environmental changes and their impacts on ecosystems, wildlife, and human societies. As the Arctic undergoes rapid transformation due to climate change, it highlights the urgent need for global climate action, conservation efforts, and support for the Indigenous communities who call the Arctic home. The future of the Arctic is intrinsically linked to global environmental and climate policies, making it a key area of focus for researchers, policymakers, and environmental advocates worldwide.


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