Deutsch: Positives Feedback / Español: Retroalimentación positiva / Português: Retroação positiva / Français: Rétroaction positive / Italiano: Retroazione positiva

Positive feedback in the environmental context refers to processes within environmental systems that amplify or increase the effect of a change, leading to further deviation from the system's initial state. Unlike negative feedback, which stabilizes and dampens changes, positive feedback tends to accelerate changes, potentially leading to dramatic shifts in environmental conditions.


Positive feedback mechanisms in the environment can lead to rapid alterations of ecosystems and climate systems. These feedback loops are particularly significant in the context of climate change, where they can exacerbate global warming and other environmental impacts.

For example, the melting of polar ice is a well-known positive feedback effect. As global temperatures rise, ice melts, reducing the Earth's albedo (the reflection of solar radiation), which in turn causes more heat absorption by the darker ocean or land surfaces previously covered by ice. This additional heat leads to further ice melt, creating a cycle that accelerates the warming process.

Application Areas

Positive feedback loops are critical in understanding and predicting:

  • Climate change dynamics: Understanding how feedback mechanisms contribute to accelerating changes in the climate.
  • Ecosystem responses: Studying how ecosystems might shift abruptly instead of gradually in response to environmental stressors.

Well-Known Examples

Several notable examples of positive feedback in the environment include:

  • Permafrost thawing: As temperatures rise, permafrost thaws, releasing methane (a potent greenhouse gas), which then contributes to further warming of the atmosphere.
  • Forest fires: Increased temperatures and drought conditions can lead to more frequent and severe forest fires, which release large amounts of CO2, further enhancing the greenhouse effect and potentially increasing the frequency of fires.

Treatment and Risks

The primary risk associated with positive feedback loops in the environment is their potential to cause runaway effects, where changes become self-perpetuating and increasingly difficult to reverse. This can lead to tipping points, after which systems may not return to their original state, resulting in new, often less hospitable conditions.

Managing these risks involves mitigating the initial changes that trigger positive feedback loops, such as reducing greenhouse gas emissions to slow global warming and implementing strategies to maintain ecosystem resilience.

Similar Terms

  • Tipping point: A critical threshold at which a small change or disturbance in environmental conditions can cause a drastic and irreversible change in the system.
  • Climate feedback: Specific interactions in the climate system that can either amplify (positive feedback) or dampen (negative feedback) the effects of climate forcings.


Positive feedback in the environmental context is a crucial concept for understanding how changes within ecosystems and climate systems can accelerate and amplify, leading to significant and often unpredictable environmental impacts. Recognizing and managing these feedback loops is essential for effective environmental stewardship and mitigating the adverse effects of climate change.


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