Deutsch: Myanmar / Español: Myanmar / Português: Myanmar / Français: Myanmar / Italiano: Myanmar

Myanmar, formerly known as Burma, is a country in Southeast Asia with a rich and diverse environment that plays a crucial role in the region’s ecological balance. It is characterized by a variety of habitats, including tropical rainforests, mountainous regions, and extensive river systems, which support a wide range of biodiversity.


Myanmar's environment is notable for its significant biodiversity, including numerous species of plants, birds, mammals, and marine life, many of which are endemic to the region. The country is home to important ecosystems such as the Ayeyarwady River basin, which provides vital water resources for agriculture and is a key habitat for aquatic and terrestrial wildlife. Additionally, Myanmar's coastal and marine environments include significant mangrove forests and coral reefs that are crucial for coastal protection, fisheries, and biodiversity.

Environmental challenges in Myanmar include deforestation, illegal wildlife trade, pollution, and the impacts of climate change such as increased flooding and cyclones. These issues are exacerbated by rapid economic development and political instability, which often hinder effective environmental governance and sustainable management practices.

Application Areas

The environmental context of Myanmar involves several critical areas:

  • Conservation: Efforts to protect its vast natural habitats and the species that depend on them, including protected areas and wildlife reserves.
  • Sustainable Development: Integrating environmental considerations into economic planning and infrastructure development to ensure long-term sustainability.
  • Climate Change Adaptation: Addressing vulnerabilities to climate change impacts, particularly in rural communities and in sectors such as agriculture and fisheries.

Well-Known Examples

Notable environmental areas and initiatives in Myanmar include:

  • Hkakabo Razi National Park: Located in the northern part of the country, this park is known for its pristine landscapes and diverse species, including the critically endangered leaf deer.
  • Inle Lake: Famous for its unique ecosystem and traditional floating gardens, although it is now facing significant environmental pressures from tourism and intensive agriculture.
  • The Irrawaddy Dolphin Conservation Area: A critical habitat for the endangered Irrawaddy dolphins, emphasizing the importance of biodiversity conservation in Myanmar’s river systems.

Treatment and Risks

Myanmar faces several environmental risks and challenges:

  • Deforestation: Driven by logging, agricultural expansion, and infrastructure development, leading to loss of biodiversity and ecosystem services.
  • Pollution: Water and air pollution from industrial activities and urban centers are increasing health risks and affecting wildlife.
  • Impact of Political Instability: Ongoing conflicts and governance challenges complicate efforts to manage natural resources sustainably and protect environmental defenders.



Myanmar’s environment is rich and diverse but faces significant challenges due to both natural vulnerabilities and human activities. Effective management and international cooperation are essential to preserve its environmental heritage and ensure the well-being of its population. Addressing environmental issues in Myanmar is critical not only for its own future but also for the ecological health of the Southeast Asian region.


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